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CITATING 
- OR - 
SHEPARDIZING
via Print and Westlaw Keycite

Citators help researchers to evaluate cases and statutes -- giving their latest status -- and help locate authorities. At Indiana State University, you can shepardize online or in print. Traditionally, citating refers to the use of Shepard’s Citations. Shepards'  titles include:

  • Shepard’s United States Citations -- Reference KF 101.2 .S54 covers US Statutes (STAT and USC); court rules, treaties, US Supreme Court cases from US, L.Ed.2nd and S.Ct
  • Shepard’s Federal Citations -- Reference KF 105.2 .S42 covers F., F.2nd , F .3rd, F.supp. F.R.D.
  • Shepard’s State Citators -- there is one for each state; e.g., Shepard’s Indiana: Reference KFI 3059 .S55
  • Shepard’s Regional Citators -- citator for each regional reporter; cases only. Indiana is included in the Northeastern at Reference KF 135 .N62 S5 1995

 
Online Shepardizing with WestLaw Keycite and LexisNexis Academic

Westlaw Keycite [online, in Library only].
KeyCite covers all cases, including unpublished opinions and selected administrative decisions.
In order to use KeyCite, as with Shepard's, you already have to have the case citation. KeyCite provides the following information:

  • Direct appellate history of a case
  • Negative indirect history of a case
  • Citations to cases, administrative decisions and secondary sources on Westlaw that have cited a case
  • Complete integration with the West Key Number System so you can track legal issues discussed in a case
  • Citations to recent session laws amending or repealing a state or federal statute
  • Citations to pending legislation affecting a federal statute
  • Credits and historical and statutory notes for a state or federal statute
  • Citations to cases, administrative decisions and secondary sources that have cited a state or federal statute or a federal regulation
Access via Databases/Alphabetical. Note information on screen:
 
This product is limited to the Library. To access West Law KeyCite Press KeyCite on the menu on the left-hand side of the screen. You may be asked to either install or skip the Attached Printing Plug In. Be sure to press the skip button. Once you have done that a login scrren will appear.Input the following: 

Password=2766521HRJC
Customer ID=2766521HRJC

You're in Keycite but not Keycite! However, while you're here, you can scroll down for the Publications listing [includes standard legal abbreviation for each resource], code for Westlaw's flags, etc. [right-hand frame]. You can also select Publications in the left-hand frame.find a list of the most Common legal resource abbreviations can be found on our online handout.

On this screen, find and click on the KeyCite tab         [Welcome | Find | Keycite | etc.. Getting started: On the left-hand side of the screen, enter your case as you normally would; e.g., 98 S.Ct. 2733. Keycite will also recognize this if you enter it as     98sct2733

KC History tab: When you enter a citation, you first retrieve the Direct History and Negative Indirect citations on the left side of the screen.  This lists cases directly relating back to the original case. Click the icon next to the GO button to expand the History side of the screen. It looks as though you could click on the number of the citation and go directly to the case; however, because the ISU Library does not subscribe to this feature of KeyCite, all you can do is write or print or email your results. You can set your print or email parameters. Email choices include send as attached Word document or send as email text. Once you select your Print/Email option, the results should automatically be taken care of.

KC Citing refs tab: To view a list of ALL cases, pending legislation, secondary sources and administrative materials that cite your case or statute, click the KC Citing Ref tab. The case you entered is represented by a blue flag. Negative cases are listed first, followed by Positive. If you want to avoid lengthy scrolling to reach the Positive cases, use your browser's Find command, enter 'positive'. If you expanded the History tab, there is a link at the bottom of the screen that says: KC Citing Ref. If you click this, you will also go the the Citing refs; be patient as this is usually a very long listing. For example, the History tab for 98sct2733 retrieves 30-some citations; the Citing tab retrieves 3742 [as of September 25, 2001]

Limiting Citing Refs: [very helpful!] located on the bottom of the screen, this allows you to narrow your listing by Headnotes, Locate, Jurisdiction, Date, Document Type and Depth of Treatment. Headnotes is the default. All cases deal with multiple points of law; you can select the specific points of law you are interested in, then click the Apply button. Click on KeyCite Limiting Tips for more information on each limiting choice. If you do limit your search, you can return to the full citations list by clicking Cancel Limits on the KC Citing Ref tab. Change your restrictions by clicking Edit Limits.

Another example of limiting: Depth of treatment: 4 stars=Examined  [The citing case contains an extended discussion of the cited case, usually more than a printed page of text.] 3 stars=Discussed  [The citing case contains a substantial discussion of the cited case, usually more than a paragraph but less than a printed page.]

Print/email: Currently not built-in to Keycite; therefore, use your Browser's Mail or Print functions. If you have web-based email, you could also open your own email and cut/paste the document in, and send it to yourself. Hopefully in the near future Westlaw will add Print/Email features, so keep looking for them.

You can't get there from here: When you are in Westlaw KeyCite, you cannot switch to other parts of Westlaw, even though it looks as if you can. Likewise, if you are using Westlaw Campus, you will not be able to reach KeyCite from there, and vice versa. Return to Databases/Alphabetical. Remember, you CANNOT shepardize from Westlaw Campus, only from Westlaw Keycite.

Signoff when finished using Westlaw Keycite [upper right hand corner]


How To Do It [Print]

Start with a case, like  United States V. Hudspeth, 384 F.2nd 683   [this is your cited case]


  • Go to the appropriate Shepard’s set (this case requires the use of Shepard’s Federal Citations).
  • Find the volume that covers F.2n 201-390, i.e., the 1969 volume which contains 384 F.2nd.
  • Open your volume. Volume numbers are indicated on tops of pages and in columns.
  • When you find the page(s) where 384 is listed, look down the columns for the number 683. You may nor may not find listings for your specific case. If you don’t, proceed to the next volume on the shelf and start over. When you find your listing it will look like the example opposite:
-683-
Cir.8
400F2nd8381
Cir.9
411 F2nd3904

and so on

These are your citing cases. Write down all the citations you find, volume after volume. As you approach the present, be sure to check all paper supplements as well.


 
Citing cases will give one of the following: 1 parallel citation; in parentheses, any parallel citation to the cited case, including ciations from the ALR system
2 history of the case; letter abbreviations indicate what happened to the case on appeal:
a affirmed on appeal
D dismissed on appeal
r reversed on appeal
See front pages of Shepard’s volumes for complete key to abbreviations 3 treatment of a case; what other cases have done with or written about the cited case:
c a case criticized the cited case
f a case followed the cited case
o a case overruled the cited case
q a case questioned the cited case

For other abbreviations, check the introductory pages of each printed volume. To find a key to legal abbreviations while you are using Westlaw Keycite, see below.  If there are no letter abbreviations, assume that the citing cases simply made reference to information relating to the original case.


LexisNexis Academic/Legal Research: You can shepardize U.S. Supreme Court cases only in this database [also available via Databases/Alphabetical].



The Legal Research guide comprises the most complete information, and includes information also available in separate handouts for Legal Abbreviations, Citating/Shepardizing (this handout), and Tracing Legislation. The Tracing Legislation is the most complete handout on locating U.S. and Indiana legislative information. You may also find the Criminology and Sports Law guides helpful.

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