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selected resources

College & university libraries contain vast quantities of materials of interest to the historical researcher. However, many materials, especially certain standard Reference works, are not known to the novice (or sometimes even the advanced) researcher. This bibliography is lists primary and secondary resources and represents a sampling of the kinds of things to look or ask for when using the library for historical research. The listings below have been divided into:

(A) Library Resources to Identify Books (E) Guides to Historical Research (primary) (I) Government Documents (statistics)
(B) Library Resources to Identify Other Materials (F) Government Documents (general and legislative)  (J) Internet Resources
(C) Indexes (G) Government Documents (general historical) (K) Selected Readings
(D) Guides to Historical Research (secondary) (H) Government Documents (selected list of topics) (L) Excerpts adapted from D’Aniello, Charles A., editor, Teaching Bibliographic Skills in History; a sourcebook for historians and librarians


CUMULATIVE BOOK INDEX (1912-1993); Z 1219 .M78

NATIONAL UNION CATALOG, PRE-1958 IMPRINTS (754 volumes) -- Z 881 .A1 U518.

GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS Guide to Reference books / edited by Robert Balay (previously by Sheehy)-- Reference Z 1035.1 .G89 1996 (kept behind Information Desk).

WORLD BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES -- Reference Z 1002 .B5684; Reference Z 1002 .B5685; also Reference Z 1002 .T67 for coverage 1964-1974.

BRITISH NATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY (1950-1988) -- Z 2001 .B75 1971-1988 (latest five years in Reference).

WorldCat (online) -- Databases à Alphabetical

BOOKS IN PRINT (annual; online and print: Reference Alcove Z 1215 .P972)


ULRICH'S INTERNATIONAL PERIODICALS DIRECTORY -- Reference Z 6941 .U5 (and online) [annual listing of all magazines, journals, etc. currently in print; most recent edition located behind Information Desk; also available electronically.

MAGAZINES FOR LIBRARIES (Bill Katz) Reference Z6941 .K2 1995 -- at Information Desk

HISTORICAL PERIODICALS; an annotated world list of historical and related serial publications. Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1961 -- Reference Z 6205 .B6.

AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS, 1821-1936 New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1937 -- Reference Z 6945 .A53.

NEWSPAPERS IN MICROFORM. FOREIGN COUNTRIES. Washington: Library of Congress -- Reference Z 6945 .U515a 1948/72.

NEWSPAPERS IN MICROFORM. UNITED STATES. Reference Z 6951 .U56a (1948/72 - 1973/77).

GENEALOGIES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS; a bibliography. Baltimore, MD: Magna Carta Book Co., 1972-. -- Reference Z 5319 .U53 V.1-3.

NATIONAL UNION CATALOG OF MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS -- Washington: Library of Congress -- Reference Z 6620 .U5 N3 (1986-1993); 1959 to 1985 in general collection.

THE WPA HISTORICAL RECORDS SURVEY: a guide to the unpublished inventories, indexes, and transcripts. Hefner, Loretta L., compiler. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1980 -- Reference CD 3050 .W25 PT.1-2.

GUIDE TO THE CONTENTS OF THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE . Great Britain. Public Record Office, 1963 -- Reference CD 1043 .A553 V.3.

ArticleFirst, ContentsFirst, Papers & ProceedingsFirst (via OCLC’s FirstSearch) early 1990s to present.

Ingenta; table of contents (online) early 1990s to present.


AMERICA: HISTORY & LIFE (1954 to present) -- Reference E 171 .A48.

AMERICAN PERIODICAL INDEX, 1728-1850 -- Microfiche

HISTORICAL ABSTRACTS (1955 to present) -- Reference D 299 .H5.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC INDEX (1937 to present) -- Reference Z 1002 .B595

BIOGRAPHY INDEX (1941 to present) -- Reference Z 5301 .B5 and electronically.

HUMANITIES INDEX (1974 to 1989/90), also available under different titles back to 1870) -- Reference Alcove; also available from 1984 to present online as HUMANITIES ABSTRACTS FULL-TEXT.

POOLE’S INDEX TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE (19th century) -- Reference AI 3 .P7 1.

READER’S GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE (1900-present) -- Reference Index Alcove; see also ProQuest..

SPEECH INDEX an index to collections of world famous orations and speeches for various occasions, indexing thru 1980 -- Reference AI 3 .S85.

WOMEN'S STUDIES ABSTRACTS (1972 to present) -- Reference Z 7962 .W65.

Newspaper Indexes, including NEW YORK TIMES INDEX (1855-); TIMES (LONDON) INDEX (1791-) -- Reference Index area; also ACADEMIC UNIVERSE (online).


Background Reading:
AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION’S GUIDE TO HISTORICAL LITERATURE. Ocford University Press, 1995; 2 vols. -- Reference D 20 .A55 1995.

ARCHIVE-LIBRARY RELATIONS. New York: Bowker, 1976. Special Collections Reference {3rd floor} Z 731 .A76 1976.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND THE HISTORIAN; the conference at Belmont of the Joint Committee on Bibliographical Services to History, May 1967. Santa Barbara CA, CLIO, 1968 -- Z 286 .H5 B5.

FEDERAL LIBRARY RESOURCES: a user's guide to research collections. New York: Science Associates/International, 1984. 2nd ed -- Reference Z 675 .G7 F48 1984,

FINDING FACTS: interviewing, observing, using Reference sources. Rivers, William L. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975 -- Reference PN 146 .R58.

GUIDE FOR RESEARCH STUDENTS WORKING ON HISTORICAL SUBJECTS. Kitson Clark, George. London, Cambridge U.P., 1968. 2nd ed. --D 16 .K58 1968.

HANDBOOK FOR RESEARCH IN AMERICAN HISTORY; a guide to bibliographies and other Reference works. Rrucha, Francis Paul. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987 -- Reference Z 1236 .P78 1987.

HARVARD GUIDE TO AMERICAN HISTORY. Freidel, Frank Burt. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard U Press, 1974. rev. ed. -- Reference Z 1236 .F77.

HISTORIANS, BOOKS AND LIBRARIES; a survey of historical scholarship in relation to library resources, organization and services. Shera, Jesse Hauk. Cleveland, Press of Western Reserve University, 1953 -- D 16 .S52.

HISTORIAN'S HANDBOOK, a key to the study and writing of history. Gray, Wood. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1964. 2d ed. -- D 13 .G78 1964.

THE HISTORIAN'S HANDBOOK; a descriptive guide to Reference works. Poulton, Helen J. Norman OK: U of OK Press, 1972 -- Reference Z 6201 .P65.

IN PURSUIT OF AMERICAN HISTORY; research and training in the United States. Rundell, Walter. Norman, U of Oklahoma Press, 1970 -- E 175.8 .R8.

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR HISTORIANS. Floud, Roderick. Princeton NJ: Princeton U Press, 1973 -- D 16 .F66 1973.

LIBRARY RESEARCH GUIDE TO HISTORY: illustrated search strategy and sources. Frick, Elizabeth. Ann Arbor MI: Pierian Press, 1980 -- Reference D 16 .F87.

LOCAL HISTORY: a guide for research and writing. Mahoney, James. Washington DC: National Education Association, 1981 -- D13 .M25.

THE MODERN RESEARCHER. Barzun, Jacques and Henry F. Graff. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. 4th ed. -- Reference D 13 .B344 1985.

RESEARCH GUIDE IN HISTORY. Wilson, John R. M. Morristown NJ: General Learning Press, 1974 -- Reference D 16 .W635.

RESEARCHING, WRITING, AND PUBLISHING LOCAL HISTORY. Felt, Thomas Edward. Nashville TN: American Association for State and Local History, 1981. 2nd ed.-- D 13 .F387 1981.

UNDERSTANDING HISTORY; a primer of historical method. Gottschalk, Louis Reichenthal. New York, Knopf, 1969. 2nd ed. -- D 13 .G75 1969.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES IN AMERICAN HISTORY; guide to materials for research. Beers, Henry Putney. New York, H.W. Wilson Co., 1942 -- Reference Z 1236 .B4; sequel: BIBLIOGRAPHIES IN AMERICAN HISTORY, 1942-1978: guide to materials for research -- Reference Z 1236 .B39 1982 V.1- 2.

THE CRAFT OF PUBLIC HISTORY: an annotated select bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983 -- Reference Z 6208 .H5 C73 1983.

FOOTNOTES TO AMERICAN HISTORY: a bibliographic source book. Sharp. Harold S. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977 -- Reference Information Desk Z 1236 .S48.

FOOTNOTES TO WORLD HISTORY: a bibliographic source book. Sharp, Harold S. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1979 -- Reference Z 6201 .S52.

GUIDE TO AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS SINCE 1700. Santa Barbara CA: ABC-Clio, 1983 -- Reference Z 6465 .U5 C84 1983.

HISTORIOGRAPHY; an annotated bibliography of journal articles, books, and dissertations. 2 volumes. Susan K. Kinnell, editor. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC- CLIO, 1987 -- Reference Z 6208 .H5 H57 1987.

HISTORIOGRAPHY, METHOD, HISTORY TEACHING; a bibliography of books and articles in English, 1965-1973. Birkos, Alexander S. Hamden CT: Linnet Books, 1975 -- Reference Z 6208 .H5 B57.

SERIAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND ABSTRACTS IN HISTORY; an annotated guide. Henige, David, compiler. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986 -- Reference Z 6201 .A1 H45 1986.

RESEARCH CENTERS DIRECTORY Detroit, Gale Research Co., -- AS 25 .D5 {LATEST VOLUME IN Reference}.

SPECIAL COLLECTIONS IN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES. Modoc Press, Inc., compilers. New York: Macmillan, 1989 -- Special Collections -- Special Collections Reference Z 731 .S78 1989s.

SUBJECT COLLECTIONS: a guide to special book collections and subject emphases as reported by university, college, public, and special libraries and museums in the United States and Canada. New York: Bowker, 1993 -- Reference Z 731 .A78 1993 v.1-2.


SUBJECT COLLECTIONS: a guide to special book collections and subject emphases as reported by university, college, public, and special libraries and museums in the United States and Canada. New York: Bowker, 1993 -- Reference Z 731 .A78 1993 v.1-2.
Archival Resources: Using Archives
ADVANCES IN PRESERVATION AND ACCESS. Westport: Meckler, 1992-. Z 700.9 .A35 v.2 (1995)

ARCHIVES & MANUSCRIPTS, Reference & ACCESS. Holbert, Sue E. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977 -- SPECIAL COLLECTIONS--Reference {3rd floor}CD 950 .H64 1977.

MODERN ARCHIVES AND MANUSCRIPTS: a select bibliography. Evans, Frank Bernard. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1975 -- SPECIAL COLLECTIONS--Reference {3rd floor} and Reference {1st floor} Z 5140 .387 1975B.

RESEARCH IN ARCHIVES; the use of unpublished primary sources. Brooks, Philip Coolidge. Chicato: U of Chicago Press, 1969 -- D 16 .B87 1969 (on 2-hour reserve).

Archival Resources: Directories
AMERICAN STATE ARCHIVES. Posner, Ernst. Chicago, U of Chicago Press, 1964 -- Reference CD 3024 .P6 [another copy on 2-hour reserve].

DIRECTORY OF ARCHIVES AND MANUSCRIPT REPOSITORIES. Washington: National Historical Publications and Records Commission, 1978 -- Reference CD 3020. U54 1978.

DIRECTORY OF STATE AND PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES. 1975. Austin TX: Society of American Archivists -- Reference CD 3000 .D57 1975.

GUIDE TO THE DIPLOMATIC ARCHIVES OF WESTERN EUROPE. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959 -- CD 1001 .T4.

PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF ARCHIVES AND MANUSCRIPTS IN INDIANA REPOSITORIES. Thompson, Donald Eugene. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1980 -- SPECIAL COLLECTIONS -- Reference {3rd floor} CD 3221 .T5 1980.

Other Primary Resources:
AMERICAN DIARIES; an annotated bibliography of American diaries written prior to the year 1861. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1945 -- Reference PE 11 .C3; [continued by]: AMERICAN DIARIES: an annotated bibliography of published American diaries and journals. Detroit: Gale Research, 1983 -- Reference Z 5305 .U5 A74 1983.

BENEATH THE FOOTNOTE; a guide to the use and preservation of American historical sources. Burnette, O. Lawrence. Madison, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1969 -- Reference CD 3021 .B93.

BRITISH DIARIES; an annotated bibliography of British diaries written between 1442 and 1942. Matthews, William. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1950 -- Reference Z 2014 .D5 M3.

FROM MEMORY TO HISTORY: using oral sources in local historical research. Allen, Barbara. Nashville TN: American Association for State and Local History, 1981 -- D 16 .A38.


THE RESEARCHER'S GUIDE TO AMERICAN GENEALOGY. Greenwood, Val D. Baltimore, Genealogical Publ, 1990 -- Reference CS 47 .G73 1990


Access to federal, state and United Nations publications is through LUIS, general periodical indexes such as Columbia International Affairs Online (print and online) and various specialized indexes located in the Documents area. Approximately two-thirds of the federal publications received by this library can be found in LUIS (1976 to present). For state and UN documents, you must use the Monthly Checklist of State Publications and UNDOC: Current Index, as well as some of the more specialized resources listed below. To supplement federal documents holdings identified through LUIS, you must use the Monthly Catalog of U. S. Government Publications (monthly since 1895), located on the Documents Index tables. This library receives approximately 60% of the items indexed. Other materials can be requested through regular interlibrary loan procedures.

Superintendent of Documents classification numbers are given but you should check LUIS or at the Documents desk to ascertain the exact location and holdings information.



U.S. CONGRESSIONAL SERIAL SET. U.S. Congress -- Y 1.1/2: {prior to 1817, issued as the American State Papers} -- An ongoing series of volumes containing the reports and documents of the House and Senate, as well as reports submitted to Congress by other government agencies and commissions. The complete set, from 1789 to the present, consists of more than 13,000 volumes.

1774-1881: DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, Sept. 5, 1774-March 4, 1881. (1885). U.S. Congress. Senate. Senate Miscellaneous Document 67, 48th Congress, 2nd Session -- Serial Set 2268.

1789-1817: PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE FIRST FOURTEEN CONGRESSES, 1789-1817 -- papers relating to early congressional documents. (1900). U.S. Congress. Senate. Senate Document 428, 56th Congress, 1st session -- Serial Set 3879. [commonly known as "Greeley"].

1881-93: COMPREHENSIVE INDEX TO THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. (1905). U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. House Document 754, 58th Congress, 2nd session -- Serial Set 4745-4746. [commonly known as "Ames's"].


AMERICAN STATE PAPERS. (1832-61). U.S. Congress. Serial Set 01-038. Executive and legislative documents of the first 14 congresses, 1789-1823, grouped by subject categories.

JOURNALS OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, 1774-88. (1777-1823). 12-15 VOLS. -- Z 2.5:, Z 2.6:, Z 2.7:, LC 4.5:


AMERICAN ARCHIVES (1837-53). 9 vols. -- Z 1.1: [Colonial papers and documents for the period 1774- 76 on colonial affairs and the American Revolution.]

FEDERAL POPULATION CENSUSES, 1790-1890. (1979). U.S. General Services Administration. National Archives and Records Service,. National Archives Trust Fund Board -- GS 4.2: P81/2/790-890 [recent edition not depository; available free from the National Archives].

GUIDE TO THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES (1974). U.S. General Services Administration. National Archives and Records Service -- GS 4.6/2:N21 [and in Reference CD3023 .U54 1974].

A GUIDE TO THE USE OF UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS (including Reference to the specialized agencies and special U.N. bodies). Brimmer, Brenda. Dobbs Ferry NY: Oceana Pbcns, 1962 -- Reference Z 674 .B7 1962A [another copy in Govt Documents Reference].

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS AMERICAN MEMORY PROJECT, America's Story in Words, Sounds & Pictures

A RESEARCHER'S GUIDE TO THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES. (1977). U.S. General Services Administration. National Archives and Records Service -- GS 4.22:25/2.

SELECT LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION. United States National Archives and Records Administration. Rev. 1989. Washington, DC : The Administration, 1989 -- Gov Docs Reference er AE 1.113:3/9.


In order to give you an idea of the types of publications to be found in documents, selected titles are listed.

THE ARMY AIR FORCES IN WORLD WAR II (1983). 7 vols. U.S.department of Defense. Air Force. Office of Air Force History -- D 301.82:. FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. (annual) 1818-. U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Bureau of Public Affairs -- S 1.1: [earliest volumes issued in the Serial Set].

GENEALOGICAL RECORDS IN THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES. (1983). U.S. General Services Administration. National Archives and Records Service -- GS 4.22:5/5; see also GETTING STARTED: BEGINNING YOUR GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES. (1983) -- GS 1.2:G28/6.




OFFICIAL RECORDS OF UNION AND CONFEDERATE NAVIES IN WAR OF REBELLION. (1894-1927). 22 vols. U.S. Department of the Navy. Library and Naval War Records Office -- N 16.1: or Serial Set.

PUBLIC PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 1957-. -- GS 4.113:; see also A COMPILATION OF THE MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS, 1789-1897. 10 vols. -- Serial Set 3265-1 TO -10; PRESIDENTIAL VETOES, 1789-1988 -- Y; and 1989-1994 at Y 1.3:S.PUB. 103-13.

REVOLUTIONARY DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE, 1775-85. (1889). 5 vols. Z 2.4: or Serial Set 2585-2589.

TERRITORIAL PAPERS OF THE UNITED STATES. 1934-. 28 vols. U.S. General Services Administration. National Archives and Records Service -- GS 4.13: [earlier, S 1.36:).

TRIAL OF THE MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL, NUREMBERG. (1947-49). 42 VOLS. U.S. War Department. International Military Tribunal -- W 1.2:C86/v.; see also GUIDES TO GERMAN RECORDS MICROFILMED AT ALEXANDRIA, VA. 1958-. -- AE 1.112: [earlier GS 4.18:]

WAR OF THE REBELLION. OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES (1880-1901). 130 vols. U.S. War Department -- W 45.5: or serial set.


STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE UNITED STATES (annual) 1878-. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census -- C 3.134 [copy of latest volume also available at Information Desk, 1st floor); see also STAT-USA.

HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES: COLONIAL TIMES TO 1970. Parts 1-2. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census -- C 3.134/2:H62/789-970.

CENSUS OF POPULATION.(decennial) 1950--. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. (census data go back to 1790, but the data was divided after 1950 into various categories; begin your search with: USER'S GUIDE. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census --
C 3.223/20:80- R1.

U.S. DECENNIAL LIFE TABLES U.S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare. Public Health Service. Health Resources Administration. National Center for Health Statistics -- HE 20.6215: [earlier: FS 2.85/3:]; see also GUIDE TO UNITED STATES LIFE TABLES 1900-1959. (1963). U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service -- FS 2.21:.

VITAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES. (annual) 1937-. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office of Health Research, Statistics and Technology. National Center for Health Statistics -- HE 20.6210:.

WHERE TO WRITE FOR VITAL RECORDS: BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office of Health Research, Statistics, and Technology. National Center for Health Statistics -- HE 20.6210/2:


Just as an example, here are the History categories on the YAHOO directory (as of 9/1/2001): (under


By Region (12879) 
By Subject (1300) 
By Time Period (4559) 

Alternate History (20) 
Archives (47) 
Bibliographies (9) 
Chats and Forums (22) 
Conferences (14) 
Education (306)  
Genealogy (3011)  
Historical Geography@ 
Historical Tours@ 
Historiology (163) 
Institutes (16) 
Journals (44) 
Living History (223) 

Maps (29) 
Museums and Memorials (137) 
News and Media (27) 
Oral History (58)  
Organizations (67) 
Photographic Collections@ 
Preservation (33) 
Psychohistory (7) 
Shopping and Services@ 
This Day in History (41) 
This Week in History (9) 
Treaties, Pacts, and Agreements (21) 
U.S. History (6585)  
Web Directories (42) 


Assassinations (19) 
Austro-Hungarian Empire@ 
Books and Printing@ 
Disasters (19) 
Environmental History@  
Exploration (214) 
History of the Family (7) 
Industrial Revolution (23) 
Intelligence and Espionage (26) 
Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals@ 
Maritime History (338) 

Media History@ 
Mental Health@ 
Military History (203) 
Mughal Empire@ 
Ottoman Empire (21) 
Royalty (46)  
Science and Technology (20) 
Slavery (25) 
Soviet Union (USSR)@ 
Torture (17) 
Women's History (280) 

Other Internet Starting Points


ISU Subject Browser: History

Association for History & Computing (an organisation dedicated to the use of computers in historical research)

History Links: Internet Search Tools (Library); especially Argus Clearinghouse

WWW Virtual Library

INDIANA:  Indiana Historical Society
Indiana State Library


Ayers, Edaward L. A historian in cyber space. American Heritage. October 2000. [available in ProQuest]

Bogue, Allan G. "The historian and social science data archives in the United States." Library Trends 25: 847-866 April 1977.

Cartelli, A.; Miglio, L.; Palma, M. "New Technologies and New Paradigms in Historical Research."  Informing Science,   2001, vol. 4, no. 2,   pp. 61-66.

Case, D.O. "The collection and use of information by some American historians: A study of motives and methods." Library Quarterly 61 (1), 61-82.

D'Aniello, C. "A basic bibliography of readings and course materials for bibliographic instruction in undergraduate and graduate history programs." History Teacher 17:408-44 May, 1984.

de Graaf, Lawrence B. "Clio's Neglected Tools: A Taxonomy of Reference Works for American History." History Teacher 25 (2): 191-231, February, 1992.

DelGaudio, Julian J. Should historians become programmers? Limitations and possibilities of computer-assisted instruction in the United States history survey. The History Teacher.  Nov 1999.

Delgadillo, Roberto; Lynch, Beverly P.. Future Historians: Their Quest for Information.College & Research Libraries, 1999, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 245.

Lee W Formwalt, The education of a Historian. OAH Newsletter.  Nov 1999. [available via ProQuest].

Gallacher, Cathryn A. & Dale E. Treleven. "Developing an online database and printed directory and subject guide to oral history collections." Oral History Review 16: 33-68, Spring, 1988.

Gilmore, Matthew B. and Donald O. Case. "Historians, Books, Computers, and the Library." Library Trends 40 (4): 667-86, Spring, 1992.

Goedeken, Edward A. and Jean-Pierre V.M. Herubel. "Periodical Dispersion in American History: Observations on Article Bibliographies from the Journal of American History." Serials Librarian 27 (1): 59-74, 1995.

Grele, Ronald J. "On using oral history collections: an introduction." Journal of American History 74: 570-8, September, 1987.

Jaschik, Scott. Historians differ on impact of distance education in their discipline. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Jan 21, 2000.

Kitchens, Joel D. "Clio's New Clothes: Electronic Journals for History and Some Considerations for Reference Service."
Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 1999, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 69

Orbach, B.C. "The view from the researcher's desk: Historians' perception of research and repositories." American Archivist 54 (1), 28-43.

Ostrowski, Donald. "A source-oriented theory of historical study." Diogenes no. 143: 23-40, Fall, 1988.

Pendry, A.; Husbands, C. "Research and Practice in History Teacher Education." Cambridge Journal of Education, 2000, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 321-334.

Rohrs, Richard C. "Sources and Strategies for Computer-Assisted Instruction." Historical Methods 20 (2):79-83, Spring, 1987.

Rundell, Walter, Jr. "Relations between historical researchers and custodians of source materials " College and Research Libraries 29:466-476 November 1968.

Slatta. R.W. "Historians and telecommunications." History Microcomputer Review 2 (2), 25-34 (1986).

Stieg, M.F. "The information needs of historians." College & Research Libraries 42 (6), 549-560 (1981).

Steig, M.F. The origin and development of scholarly historical periodicals. University, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1986.

Tilly, C. "How (and what) are historians doing?" American Behavioral Scientist 33 (6), 685-711 (1990).

Uva, P.A. Information-gathering habits of academic historians: Report of the pilot study. Syracuse, NY: State University of New York, Upstate Medical Centers. (ERIC Document ED 142 483).

Waiser, Bill.'Papas, don't let your daughters grow up to be historians'. The Canadian Historical Review. Jun 2000.

Whitman, Glenn.. Teaching students how to be historians: an oral history project for the secondary school classroom
The History Teacher.  Aug 2000.

Zink, S.D. "Clio's blindspot: historians' underutilization of U.S. government publication in historical research." Government Publications Review 13:67-78 January/February, 1986.

L. The items below are excerpted from D’Aniello, Charles A., editor, Teaching Bibliographic Skills in History; a sourcebook for historians and librarians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Some basic literature searching skills: Secondary Literature

1. Topic Statement: can you describe your topic in <100 words; indicating its historical importance and its intellectual, chronological and geographic contexts; indicating if work in disciplines other than history will be relevant?

2. Subject Headings: can you develop a list of Library Of Congress Subject Headings that will be useful?

3. Books: Can you cite two appropriate books, indicating the significance of each for the topic, commenting on each book’s thesis and quality but also on the sources it is based on, the methodology employed, the nature and extent of its bibliographic apparatus (footnotes, bibliography, bibliographic essay, etc.?

4. Book Reviews: Can you cite two reviews for each of the above books and cite and annotate the book review index(es) used to find them?

5. Essays: Can you cite and annotate Essay and General Literature Index and cite two relevant essays found using it?

6. General Guides to Research and Reference Materials: Can you cite and annotate useful sections of the Guide to Reference Books?

7. Specialized Guides to Research and Reference Materials: Can you identify these (and cite/annotate)?

8. Specialized Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and Reference sets: Can you find and cite at least five sources likely to be useful, annotate each, and from each, note three useful entries?

9. Biographical Sources: Cite and annotate such sets as the Dictionary of American Biography (U.S.) and the Dictionary of National Biography (Great Britain), and works on other nationalities or specific groups (women, politicians, etc.).

10. Reference Sources (any other): Can you cite and annotate relevant chronologies, directories, digests and summaries, statistical compilations, geographical sources, etc. Follow the citations and annotation of each source and give three useful entries from it.

11. Bibliographies of Bibliographies: Cite and describe the standard works (Besterman’s A World Bibliography of Bibliographies; Alice Toomey’s World Bibliography of Bibliographies. Then cite and annotate specialized bibliographies of bibliographies found using them, guides to reference sources or LUIS.

12. Topical Bibliographies: Cite and annotate up to three topical bibliographies and, from each, cite a relevant publication.

13. Online Union Catalogs: Use OCLC’s WorldCat and print out relevant citations.

14. Journal Articles: Cite and annotate abstracts, bibliographies, and indexes likely to be useful, and, for each, indicate whether or not it is available (locally or generally) in electronic form.

15. Journals: Cite and briefly describe the scope and special features of three academic journals likely to carry articles on the topic.

16. Electronic Sources: Describe the basic contents of each electronic source available at our library that may be useful to you; from each source cited provide a printout of five relevant citations.

17. Master’s Theses and Dissertations: Cite and annotate sources you will use to identify relevant work in these formats. Use Dissertations Abstracts on CD-ROM to printout 5 citations.

Some basic literature searching skills: Primary Literature

1. Books: Cite and annotate the catalogs or bibliographies you will use to identify books published in earlier periods.

2. Magazine and Journal Articles: Same as above; remember to include periodical indexes that provide retrospective coverage or indexes published during the period under study.

3. Manuscript and Archival Collections: Cite and annotate your sources; cite a relevant collection or repository identified through each.

4. Printed and Microfilmed Collections: Include such things as the collected works and papers of individuals and collections of documents focused on a particular event or topic. For microform collections use Suzanne Cates Dodson’s Microform Research Collections: A Guide (Reference Z1033.M5 D6). Cite two printed collections and two microform collections.

5. Newspapers: Cite five newspapers you might consult.

6. Government Documents: Cite a guide that describes the government publications of the nation, state or organization appropriate to your research. Then refer to this source to determine the types of documentation likely to be of use to you and describe the types of material you might consult.

7. Other Categories of Primary Source Material: Describe the types of materials you might use: diaries, physical objects, radio or television tapes, works of art, statistical records (list governmental statistics above), amps, and so forth -- and cite and annotate indexes, bibliographies, books and other sources helpful in accessing them -- from "Bibliographic Instruction in History" by Charles A. D’Aniello, p. 80-84

When to Use Electronic Database Searching

from "Using Electronic Information Sources" by Joyce Duncan Falk, p. 244-246, 
in D’Aniello (above).

[refers to fee-based database searching but considerations could apply to Internet searching as well as online catalogs, indexes, etc.]:
  • Complex topics: two or more concepts or other variables are to be combined
  • The search is for a single concept, but one on which there is not much literature and there are many printed volumes to look through
  • Both or all concepts in a query have many references in the printed index, for example, women and the labor movement, so that it would be tedious to sort through either one of the index terms
  • A thorough, extensive search is needed for all possible occurrences of a word or a name in titles and abstracts as well as in index terms
  • The search involves obscure, unusual, or very recent terminology that is not used as index terms but is present in titles and abstracts; there topics are not searchable in the printed indexes because index terms do not exist
  • A thorough, extensive search of several bibliographies is desired, especially for an interdisciplinary topic
  • The printed index or bibliography is not available
  • A person wants the convenience of a quick search that produces a printed bibliography, even if the topic is relatively easily searched by hand
  • The complete bibliographic data is needed to verify a citation
  • A research wishes to take advantage of the dynamic nature of online searching to explore a subject of a line of inquiry not yet fully defined.
When Not to Use Electronic Database Searching -- actually I’d retitle this section, when to rethink what you need to know and how you’re going about it
  • Broad topics not yet sufficiently focused by the student (discuss the topic with the professor librarian and peruse some printed works like textbooks, indexes, and review articles)
  • A query that involved a vague concept that cannot be clearly stated in words that are present in the literature, or a complex and ill-defined concept that must be expressed in numerous synonyms or indirectly related terms
  • When the search question contains facets that are ambiguous in the database because relationships are not expressed in computer-searchable terms
Historians and the Research Process [excerpt]:

The library-oriented approach to research ignores one simple truth: It is difficult to codify an inquiry. The process of discovery varies according to topic, period, country, subject, method, and, most important, the researcher’s personal predilections and agenda. Like the best history, good research depends on understanding where one needs to go next in a continuing search to capture some concept, sequence of events, or analytical angle... Librarians need to recognize that research is both a complex and an extremely individualized process, that the literature of a discipline to a considerable extent sorts and indexes itself through citations, and that a researcher may simultaneously be in more than one stage of a project and infrequently conduct a single comprehensive search for anything. Historian should recognize that their research habits could also mesh efficiently with library reference tools, that scholars often depend on librarians and archivists to provide at least information on the location of the materials they need, and that at times the help of a skilled intermediary is essential for finding the most promising channels to pursue. Neither research decisions nor searching skills are mechanical. One must know how to select, when and where to look, and how to combine sources creatively to extract the maximum assistance. (from "Finding and Using Historical Materials" by Jane A. Rosenberg and Robert P. Swierenga, in, p. 57)


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